The initial set up of on-page elements will usually take up to a couple of weeks, depending on the size of your site. However, SEO is a long term game. It’s a marathon of updating content, getting mentions on other sites, and keeping your site up to date and relevant. Good SEO never really stops. After that, it is up to the Google Gods.
Sometimes results can be seen in days, but usually it can take weeks or even months to see real progress (it just depends how good your competition is (and a host of other variables).